Darwin and Natural Selection: Crash Course History of Science #22

Darwin and Natural Selection: Crash Course History of Science #22


If you only remember one name in the entire
history of modern biology, it should be… two names. Because the first biologists were a pair of
freaky intellectual twins, just like Newton and Leibniz. But with more barnacles and monkeys. Let’s meet Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel
Wallace. [INTRO MUSIC PLAYS] In the early 1800s, England was already moving away from the traditional way of thinking
about life, which was then called “natural theology.” In this belief system, the living world was
created by a kindly but hands-off God. And there were four aspects of Creation:
One, there was a divine Creator. But simply believing in God didn’t prevent
you from asking how life works. Two, there were species that didn’t change,
ever. This idea was known as the fixity of species. But keep in mind, the French had already worked
out that species do change over time and go extinct. They just hadn’t figured out how. The third aspect of natural theology was a
short creation, in which the world was only about six thousand years old. But geologists had pushed the age of the earth
back to millions of years. And the fourth idea was the one that was still
contentious in 1800—a perfect design for each species. The idea went: if God made, say, a turtle,
he knew what he was doing. Even if that turtle was stupid or ugly, it
was still a designed-by-God original, and there wasn’t too much sense trying to understand
the mechanism, the how, of that design process. (Note: we here at Crash Course love turtles! There are no stupid ugly turtles!) Today, natural theology is associated with
philosopher William Paley, perhaps because he wrote a book in 1802 called… Natural Theology. This book influenced a young scholar named
Charles Darwin. But wanted to understand the “how.” Young Chuck originally wanted to become a
physician, but he hated the sight of blood. So he went to Cambridge to study beetles but
skipped a lot of lectures. He earned Gentleman’s Cs and graduated at
twenty two with no direction in life, just a huge collection of beetles. Which, to be honest, is more than I had. So Chuck’s family did what any rich family
with a beetle-obsessed son would do: they sent him to South America on a ship with a
cute name: The HMS Beagle. Chuck was seasick the entire five years. But the voyage was more than worth the lost
lunches: it turned Darwin from a mere collector into an extraordinary theorist. For one, the voyage gave Darwin time to read
the geological theories of Charles Lyell and think about gradual change over long ages. Wouldn’t it be nice to like get on a boat
with a couple of books and just think for 5 years, and puke a lot? Near Concepción,
Chile, Darwin saw a volcano and felt an earthquake: he got to live through Lyell’s theory of
how geological changes happen! The voyage also gave him lots of opportunity
to collect and compare fossils. For instance, Darwin found fossils of a species
that looked like a giant sloth, one like a giant capybara, and
one like a giant armadillo. And Darwin thought, what if these giant creatures
did not just coincidentally look like modern animals, like sloths, rodents, and armored
mammals, but were actually ancestors of them? But the main thing the voyage did was give
Chuck access to hundreds of specimens from similar-looking species that lived close to
each other, but in slightly different environments. The most famous examples, of course, come
from the Galapagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador, home to land and marine iguanas,
diverse mockingbirds and thrushes, tortoises by the dozen, and—say it with me—finches! Like beetles before and barnacles later, finches
became an absolute obsession for Chuck. He had to catch them all. Lucky for him, the people who lived near the
Galapagos even explained to him that the different species seemed to vary according to island. This turned out to be one in a number of clues
that would lead Chuck to developing the theory of evolution by natural selection. When he got back to London, Darwin wrote up
his meticulous fieldnotes. He published the Zoology of the Voyage of
HMS Beagle in volumes from 1838 to 1843. This alone made Darwin a serious naturalist. His generous sharing of specimens made him
not only a member of the London scientific world, but a leader in it. He sent specimens to naturalists including
John Gould, who helped Darwin confirm that his finches were actually different species,
and not just varieties of one species. Major clue! And then Darwin read the Essay on the Principle
of Population by a cranky reverend named Thomas Robert Malthus. Malthus argued that population increases geometrically,
but food only increases arithmetically: the logical result must be famine. This was the final clue—a relationship between
the environment and the reproduction of populations. Darwin reasoned that living beings compete
over resources, and only the most fit for a given region survive. It’s as if nature selects them. Hence his choice of the term “natural selection,”
for the primary mechanism of evolution. Compare this to natural theology: there’s
no Creator involved. Species aren’t fixed. The process takes aeons. And design—what design? Useful traits emerge over time. At the same time that he was solving the biggest
problem facing the study of “what is life?”, Darwin was also busy performing Victorian
gentleman-ness: he married his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, in 1839. He had babies and moved to a manor in Kent. He got REALLY into billiards. But, what Darwin was not doing? Publishing a complete theory of evolution. What was Darwin’s next move? Pigeon fancying. He bred pigeons in order to understand artificial
selection, or how humans design organisms. Because breeding pigeons is a lot faster than
watching finches change over millennia. And then? Eight years studying barnacles. He worked on his theory, writing to his friends
for advice about it. But he didn’t publish it. Darwin wanted to wait until he had incontrovertible
proof. Then in 1858, Darwin received a letter from
one Alfred Russel Wallace. Wallace had also discovered natural selection. He sincerely wrote to Darwin for advice: would
he be interested in, uh, an evidence-based theory explaining how organisms evolve? Darwin’s mentor, Lyell, told him that he
had no choice now. So Darwin and Wallace published a joint letter
in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. And then Darwin wrote a compelling, five hundred-page
book detailing his theory. In one year. In 1859, On the Origin of Species by Means
of Natural Selection, or just “the Origin,” debuted as a modest edition of twelve hundred
copies but soon became a smash hit. It was a scientific bestseller, intended for
a wide audience. No footnotes! The book explained how “descent with modification”
or “transformism” actually works. In any population of the same species, you
can see a natural variation in traits: some finches have longer beaks; some have shorter
beaks. Over time, small changes in the environment
add up, favoring some traits over others. Natural selection modifies the population:
the fittest survive and reproduce, passing on their traits. Say, the long beaks get to more food and survive
when food becomes scarce. Unfit species die out. Populations diverge into new species! Darwin’s writing, influenced by Malthus,
shifted away from a harmony of nature and toward a competition for resources—a war. But Darwin’s theory wasn’t perfect. In fact, he included a chapter on the “difficulties”
facing natural selection. These included a lack of transitional forms
in the fossil record: how do we get from fish to amphibians? Even more basically, where do variations come
from? How are they passed on from one generation
to the next? We have answers to these questions today—stayed
tuned!—but Darwin didn’t, and he admitted as much. This was… refreshing. He didn’t claim to be a genius. He didn’t bash earlier theories. The Origin didn’t even mention God, much
less where humans come from. Instead, Darwin focused on what he knew: variation
in beetles, finches, pigeons, barnacles, and fossil animals. His theory, backed by so much evidence, accounted
for how new species evolve. Even more importantly, Darwin united many
branches of natural history into a single synthetic theory and proposed a bunch of clear
and important questions for future research. In fact, Origin marks a kind of evolution
of natural history, which was focused on observation and description, into biology, which is more
focused on testing theories about living things. Darwin’s skill as a writer is one reason
his name eclipsed Wallace’s. Another is that my dude was rich! Like, born rich, invested well, married rich… He was doing all right. And Wallace? Introduce him, ThoughtBubble: Al was born to a family with money problems. He quit school at sixteen to work surveying
canals with his brother. And at twenty, he quit surveying to teach. Wallace read Malthus. He also read Darwin’s details of his American
voyage and became a lifelong fan. Wallace met Henry Walter Bates in 1844. They became science besties and decided to
figure out how evolution works in order to apply that knowledge to human society and
save people from greed and individualism. Wallace and Bates went to the Amazon from
1848 to 1852 to collect specimens for museums in London. And he was super successful… until he set
off back to England. His boat, brimming with specimens, caught
fire and sank. Wallace watched from his lifeboat as all of
his hard work—his carefully trapped and cataloged monkeys and his parrots—sank into
the dark waves. He was not rescued for ten days. But, like Galileo after his trial by the Inquisition,
Wallace never gave up. In debt, Wallace decided to continue collecting
more specimens to pay the bills, this time in Southeast Asia in 1854. He sent specimens back regularly, developing
a brilliant reputation. And Wallace was doing a more than collecting:
traveling from island to island across what is now Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore,
he observed that different environments seem to produce different populations of organisms…
perhaps even new species. While sick in bed in 1858, Wallace suddenly
recalled the essay on populations by Malthus, and an entire theory clicked into place. In his words: A “self-acting process”
meant that, for any species, “the fittest would survive.” The colleague he thought would most appreciate
this wild new theory? A slightly older naturalist in London… Thanks ThoughtBubble.
After the joint paper with Darwin, Wallace continued working in Southeast Asia until
1862. He published his major work, The Malay Archipelago,
in 1869. Wallace observed that there is a sort of invisible
line—“Wallace’s line”—in Indonesia: to the west, species resemble those in Asia. To the east, they resemble those in Australia. In fact, Wallace invented the discipline of
biogeography, or the study of plants, animals, and geological formations together. So, between them, Darwin and Wallace were
reaching a lot of people with their ideas. And it’s true that some people with conservative
religious values were outraged at the public acceptance of a Creation that had no elegant
design, just random variation. But the reaction to natural selection was
mostly acceptance. Darwin’s writing, and the depth of his and
Wallace’s evidence, settled the matter for many readers. In fact, in some ways, Darwinism was accepted
too easily. Darwinism quickly became equated with the
term “survival of the fittest,” which was coined in 1864 by biologist Herbert Spencer
and appeared in the fifth edition of Origin. This term isn’t a bad summary of natural
selection, in terms of animals and plants. But it was increasingly applied to human society,
as “social Darwinism,” in a way that Darwin and Wallace would not have approved of. An Industrial Revolution has just brought
radical change to England. A new class of capitalists saw themselves
as more “fit” to govern the world than the nobles they replaced or the workers they
controlled. Next time—Darwin’s cousin, Frank Galton,
will try to apply Chuck and Al’s theory to society. Yes, it becomes strange, and even tragic. So be sure to come back. Crash Course History of Science is filmed
in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney studio in Missoula, Montana and it’s made with the help of all
this nice people and our animation team is Thought Cafe. Crash Course is a Complexly production. If you wanna keep imagining the world complexly
with us, you can check out some of our other channels like Scishow, Eons, and Sexplanations. And, if you’d like to keep Crash Course
free for everybody, forever, you can support the series at Patreon; a crowdfunding platform
that allows you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making
Crash Course possible with their continued support.

100 thoughts on “Darwin and Natural Selection: Crash Course History of Science #22”

  1. The theory is incorrect. Post DNA research renders it so. Macro evolution never happened. It is criminal this hoax is still being taught in schools. Natural selection is powerless to drive specified complexity. It is nothing more than random damage to the DNA. There is no mechanism from which you can extrapolate macro evolution from survival of the fittest. This isn't science it's fantastical speculation. An antiquated theory that does not stand up to scrutiny. Evolutionists lack the embarrassment gene.

  2. Why is there such a huge gap between the public understanding and academic understanding of the theories of evolution.
    Has anyone been taught evolution by natural genetic engineering, or neo lamarkian evolution, or evolution by self organization, or symbiotic evolution. Instead we are taught that darwinian evolution is basically set in stone and there are no differences of opinion. And we're not taught that universal common ancestry, homology, naturalism, and natural selection are assumptions.

  3. Finding those elusive transitional fossil forms below Cambrian? Darwin was concerned about the Cambrian Explosion, need he have worried or are the artist's renderings still filling in the gaps?

  4. Darwins theory says we came from rain falling onto rocks making it turn to soup with bacteria which eventually evolved into humans gazillions of years later. god is real, DNA's are similar to codes made unique to each and every individual whether or not they are dogs,cats humans trees plants flowers insects. All have a DNA Code written by a creator to coexist with each other. Nothing cannot create Something(big bang). But Something can create Nothing and Everything.

  5. Humans play god by arrogation and theories.

    Darwin is a Project of world-leading Freemasons

    Reality is not based on theories. We are here to find out what is already given, not to add speculations – this is science. Any subjective attempts are based on bad intentions. Human has created nothing, so cannot know and must only learn.
    Sent Prophets revealed "reality" and last holy book Koran explains lifes before humans, evolution and all creation.
    If you are prejudiced, you will not seek, but act inbetween your and others limitedness. Those who ain´t seek divine way, won´t face matter of salvation, as not agreed truth that came from of a direction their ego won´t awaited at life

  6. The theory is incorrect with respect to macro evolution. Random damage to the DNA is not going to create body plans. No random process can generate precision coding. Nor can an alphabet lottery write a book. Evolutionists freely extrapolate macro evolution from micro evolution without cause. Evolution has never been observed. The so called science behind it is speculation gone wild.

  7. Still cant pronounce "Leibniz" right?! "Lei" should be pronounced like the "li" of the word "life". Not complicated….

  8. REPENT FOR THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN IS AT HAND.

    know one really believes this nonesense. STOP surpressing the truth in unrightousness.

  9. As someone who just finished reading On the Origin of Species, I'm so glad you focused on the other creatures he studied so I could learn WHY HE WOULDN'T STOP TALKING ABOUT PIGEONS. (Also he literally only mentions finches twice)

  10. The theory is not correct. Random damage to the DNA will not generate the precision coding necessary for new body plans.

  11. They left out the part where charles Darwin was insane and liked to kill and torture animals and spent his last days regreting his lifes work and rocking in a padded room.

  12. Actually there are two lines dividing Indonesia, the Wallace line divides west part of Indonesia which consists of Asiatic/Oriental faunas with transition zone in Sulawesi Island or mid part of Indonesia, then Weber line divides mid part of Indonesia with the eastern part of Indonesia which consists of Australic faunas

  13. So how did the bird evolve its beak changed that's it. Its didn't turn into cat or a frog it's still a dam bird…

  14. And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house.
    -Acts 16:31

    For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
    -John 3:16

  15. Every time I watch this video, I can't help but imagine just how brilliant Darwin and Wallace were. Discovering natural selection was no mean feat.

  16. Hmm I don’t know how much we can trust the work of a man who believed that men are more evolved than women “…the formation of her skull is said to be intermediate between the child and the man” (Darwin 1871).

  17. Natural selection is a slave to a random process. This cannot generate the highly specified digital coding required for macroevolution to occur. The task at hand is overwhelmingly complex. To think otherwise is the height of folly and requires reducing the complexity of life to that of a cartoon. The fossil record merely confirms this as well as Darwins' deep concern about the problem. The fossil record is no friend to the evolutionist. The extrapolation of macroevolution from microevolution without cause is not science.. Over time the theory has devolved into an entity whose primary function is to eliminate the need for a creator. The theory is headed for the dustbin of history. With the advent of the internet, this antiquated theory is finally exposed to the light of day. Objectivity and common sense, in the end, will win out.

  18. Darwin’s theory does not shed light on origin of species, but only evolution / selection of species.

  19. I don't want to burst your Planet of Apes fantasy bubble – but Darwin actually proved The Bible is True!
    His METICULOUS SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH actually confirms Genesis 2:9 and 9:14 with his research on how hilltops become barren and eroded!
    It is really sad how many idiots think themselves evolved from monkeys!
    They probably all think AOC is wonderful.
    They probably all voted for Obama.
    They will all be slaughtered when Jesus returns as they all say he doesn't exist.
    They all are unaware that Satan is laughing at them for believing the lies he put in the head of ARWallace one evening in a darkened room of Spirit Cooking!

    That's right! Wallace went into a darkened room one evening where an occultist – BIBLICAL SPIRITS!!!!!!!!! – was demonstrating how to work with spirits!
    One of the spirits put the whole fairy tale of Evolution into Wallace's head and he passed it all on to Darwin!
    AND DARWIN HIMSELF SAID THE WHOLE IDEA OF EVOLUTION WAS RIDICULOUS!

  20. Isn't this guy on the scishow and pbs eons? How many does he do? He's good tho! If he was my science teacher I'd love science more lol.

  21. No way did man evolve from ape. Apes do not have a large penis. Proportionally us male humans have a very large reproductive organ compared to other mammals. Your average horse weighs Approx. 2000 lbs. A 6 ft tall man weight about 190 lbs. 2000 lbs divided by 190 lbs = 10.52. If a horse was proportionally hung like the "Average" man. That horse would have a 61 inch long penis. 10.52 X 5.8 inches = 61 inches. Us humans are very superior to the ape in every way. Darwin was full of fecal matter.

  22. The people before Newton knew that apples fall from tree without no reason. If someone asked "Why apples dont't fly?" everyone would laugh at him. This is true for the principle of "natural selection". Why this phenomenon happens? You might say "this is how it is" or justify it. Again, ask yourself about the last statement, and continue. I believe the last chain would be "Because God intended that".

  23. Can a blind man design clothing to match his surroundings as a defence mechanism or a plant design itself to mimic perfectly a bird or an insect design its body to mimic a leaf as a defensive evolutionary tactic when it does not have a sense of self in the mirror ? The concentration of theory narrowed to a pinpoint as an explanation "sort of" when there are 8000000 million mammals that have simultaneously evolved by a freak of accident to create 8000000 million perfect to form DNA ,that is not even going to the plants evolving just in time in tune with the mammals evolving to allow for survival.
    When taken in that context THERE IS NO SCIENTIST THAT CAN EVEN COME CLOSE to justifying evolution as even a scintilla of a valid argument .
    So lay of the Magic mushrooms .😀

  24. Diet determines health exercise too exposure to sun or lack of will result in skin colour and complexion but all with the same arms legs brains essentially all humans with a variety but STILL HUMANS.
    So why did humans not grow more and thicker hair in the case of Eskimos ?
    Populations of humans die out when facing impossible situations but never evolved to fur coated skin to survive .
    So NO evolution is not ever an acceptable theory let alone become facts .
    Vegetarians amongst humans don't have flat teeth as a result of chewing the cud only lol😂😂

  25. Ufologists i was an opportunity to make you feel better and then you got to see your face and you have to get to work together and to gghgg/c hub cc=hdxrthchtdtcucfg morning htfhftyfffh&ftffjcyjjctcjftgr I fall asleep in bed and I cannot I e to him and he said that njjffbhuhj,cchjucchuj day feaithasdlhiuawdlugiaadwlhuliadehuisflguiSedguiSedguiadehjI,bjhSFrjkhjk..hukvxd,jbhfd, hgkhgvjsefhggfeyugksfe

  26. The mathematical possibility for a human cell to construct itself through evolution has been proven Ludicrous. Evolution is A failed Science. Please it's time to move on.

  27. Darwin's theories are inherently racist. You should tell the truth. Go look at what the original title of the Origin of Species was if you think I'm not telling the truth.

  28. Question to the Darwinian cartel:

    What experiment has shown that a material process may create a code and then generate unbounded information as required by evolution?

  29. buddy you mime intelligence, you don't know a single true fact, you believe in something like a religion. the oldest cities in the world are jericho and damascus, both in the bible, the oldest ruins in the world are in iraq, near iraq is the birthplace of adam, near euphrates river…it's a big coincidence that man capable to build cities begun in places according to the bible. darwin said survival of the fittest, Jesus said to love your enemy and your neighbor, darwin is the opposite of Jesus, darwin is the beast, the liar, the deceiver, darwin is not science, he is not education, he is not the truth…read the apocalypse cap 13, the first beast. buddy, you believe people who are paid to prove evolution and they can't..an ordinary man doesn't see anything, he believes in evolution like a religion. the fossils are dating with earth layers and the earth layers are dating with fossils…it's a loop…carbon dating or other dating are not accurate. there is no proof about evolution, if you want to prove evolution, make life in the laboratory or find alien life, these are the only chances you have it. who gives you the right to be unfaithful and who makes me a believer? simple, you can't obey to God because you are satan. who is that "hero" that invented christianity not for himself but for other people in the future? the bones which are found are or humans or apes and they are so old and dusty, you can't see anything. buddy from when the men are "awake" nothing has changed, that is the big evolution once at millions of years a nose get flatten? what is the purpose of that? listen to the law of God and you will have anything you need.

  30. Evolution is a myth. Evolution completely defies laws of physics, gravity, and thermodynamics! How did life begin from a nothing besides a supernatural being? How does a spinning ball create a cell that is super complex. It’s not like you can just change your DNA! Us and monkeys have a different number of chromosomes and COMPLETELY different DNA! Tell me how do you go inside everyone of your trillion cells and change everyone of your genes, even with technology today we can’t do that! So why could the earth? Also, Darwin was racist his book title was actually called “ The Origin of Species by Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life”. Evolution is nothing about facts it’s just a belief system if you can overwhelm me with facts about evolution I will believe it.

  31. This video is awesome! After being a biology teacher for 15 years, I wish I would’ve had this summary long ago. Fantastic job! Simplified, clear, entertaining, accurate, historically synthesized and relevant, beautiful job. Donation and support here I come!!

  32. I don’t see how anyone in the world can look at nature and say that there is no intelligent design.
    Look at everything in nature it’s elegant.
    Brilliant.
    Efficient.
    And carefully crafted together.
    To see that there is no God makes no logical sense everything is to perfectly put together.

  33. Darwin was not thinking about how his work would be applied to humans. He was just looking into the differences on the same type of barnacles. birds, reptiles … and not on man…

  34. The animal kingdom is a planned work of The Almighty this research showing this reality.There may many similarities as part of same plan.The development of gentics progress to proved this reality.Wait dont comments as folish do looking the similarities

  35. Actually, this video about Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel, Wallance with their natural selection is something familiar to me. I think when I was in grade 9 or 10. Darwin Wallance as the one man who truly understand the idea of evolution by natural selection. Natural selection can be used by farmers to generate organisms with desirable fruits. Darwin Theory explained through the natural selection, more individuals are produced each generation than can survive.
    I'm amazed to the both of them! Thanks to this video.

  36. Romans 1:22-32 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.

  37. Another propaganda video. How much longer will the charade of macroevolution continue? Just what have all the so-called scientists been doing all these past decades? Burning the midnight oil trying to figure out how natural selection acting on random copying errors of the DNA generated the incomprehensible amount of hyper-precise coding necessary for the body plans of every creature that ever lived and the reams of information that never existed before. Hell no. They haven't a clue how the mutation lottery spews out increasing complexity and overcomes irreducible complexity. To be an evolutionist one must suspend life experience.  The biggest scam in history. Welcome to the dark age of science.

  38. Evilution is by life disproven. It is so wrong; they say your grandpa was monkey and you then act like monkey and leave house t throw poo poo at people and the evolutionists com to your house and steal your stuff when you are away. "Haha" they say " we fooled another one"

  39. I found out that there hiding PI/Fibonacci/Golden ratio…. Stands for 6 day work and one day rest 6.1 1.6 7
    From the Egyptian till now its even in the house adres of the White House 
    You can follow in a timeline where this was used in architecture… to make themselfs as gods
    They use this in everything from creditcards ect
    I was reschearching the water found on earth 70% as the human body
    And the moon doesnt have this how could it be that by chance and interval the water came here
    You’ll see that by rescheaching this that it isn’t by chance or interval 
    Creation is a fact…. 
    And I need smart people to help reschearch this.. if evolution was true bird man and all superhero, s would be fact!

  40. Charles Darwin said Evolution was "stupid" and a fake theory he made up just to play the Devils advocate in science,.. Look it up ,,

  41. Macroevolution is not supported by the fossil record. Evolutionists cannot explain how natural selection acting on random copying errors produces new information and hyper-precise coding necessary for new body plans. The biggest scam in history.

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